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Of 34 farmland crows presented with D. Of the two farmland crows presented with a choice of raw materials, both manufactured tools exclusively from D. Whether provided only with D. Given that D. Bluff and C. Rutz, unpubl. The fact that birds within a given site tend to converge on the same material would imply that their learning processes are very consistent, or at least lead to consistent outcomes. Informal examination of hooked stick tools manufactured at both of our sites suggests that materials indeed comprise a nonrandom sample of the available options with respect to a number of properties.

Apparent commonalities include a small absolute stem diameter Fig. Materials selectivity is not limited to the choice of plant species. Recent experimental work has shown that the farmland crows choose among D.

Strong between‐site variation in New Caledonian crows’ use of hook‐tool‐making materials

Turning our attention to ultimate explanations for the observed pattern, there are a number of reasons that different materials might be used in different locations. One is that the variation could result from genetic or cultural drift processes, and thus be simply random. This hypothesis is not well supported by current evidence: hooked stick tools made at the two study sites are generally of similar size and shape Fig. The reluctance of the beach crows to use D. Volume , Issue 2. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.

The Study of Animal Variation

If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Research Article Open Access. James J. Barbara C.

OSA | Study of zero position variation for an optical sight by using a CCD

Jessica E. Its calculation is crucial for the adhesive experiments performed in laboratories because both precision and reliability can be verified. The aim of this study was to evaluate and to suggest a classification of the coefficient variation CV for in vitro experiments on shear and tensile strengths. The experiments were performed in laboratory by fifty international and national studies on adhesion materials. Statistical data allowing the estimation of the coefficient of variation was gathered from each scientific article since none of them had such a measurement previously calculated.

A mean value of 6. A range classification was proposed for the coefficient of variation from such data, that is, it should be considered low for a value lesser than 2. Such classification can be used as a guide for experiments on adhesion materials, thus making the planning easier as well as revealing precision and validity concerning the data. Uniterms: Statistic; Shear strength; Tensile strength. The experiments testing materials used for bonding devices to dental enamel are greatly represented in the orthodontic literature where various types of materials e. The results from such experiments are usually extrapolated to the orthodontic clinic according to the successful use of certain materials.

Despite the great concern with the scientific quality, however, such orthodontic articles have been published with low experimental precision in large part due to the lack of reference values for comparison. Statistical softwares are used for analyzing the data obtained from such experiments, where mean values and standard deviations are assessed. Nevertheless, such researches have a great diversity in terms of project and as a result the researchers also need to evaluate the dispersion measurement called coefficient of variation CV in order to asses both the experiment's precision and the data's reliability since those studies carried out with low precision usually result in mistaken conclusions Despite this ideal measurement of variation for data series involving different units 6 , Graner 10 emphasizes that it should not be employed in a generalized way, such as comparisons involving extremely distinct magnitudes.

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CV is also used for determining sample sizes as well as for estimating the population average 9, 11, In addition, the CV calculation becomes essential for any experiment because the sample size can be planned 13 and as a result the amount of samples necessary for carrying out the study can be determined as well. By using such a measurement it is possible to verify the methodological process comparing the number of representative repetitions in order to assess the material adhesiveness to the tooth. In face of such considerations, the aim of this study was to evaluate and to suggest the distribution of the coefficient of variation, which was ranked into low, intermediate, high, and very high for the adhesion experiments involving both shear and tensile bond strength tests.

Fifty national and international scientific articles from 16 dental periodicals published between and Table 1 were evaluated. All the articles involved in vitro tests on shear and tensile bond strengths. Because none of the studies had shown coefficient of variation tests, statistical data allowing the calculation of such measurement were gathered mean values and standard deviations. Journal of Applied Physics , 14 , Fatigue in 0. Application of tris trimethylsilyl borate to suppress self-discharge of layered nickel cobalt manganese oxide for high energy battery. Applied Energy , , William E.

Advanced Materials , 28 31 , Surface Science , , Kulova, A. High-voltage materials for positive electrodes of lithium ion batteries review. Russian Journal of Electrochemistry , 52 6 , A comparative study of structural changes in lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide as a function of Ni content during delithiation process.

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Solid State Ionics , , Improved rate capability of highly loaded carbon fiber-interwoven LiNi 0. Nanoscale , 8 21 , Recent advances in titanium-based electrode materials for stationary sodium-ion batteries. Liwen F.

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Wan, Joshua Wright, Brian R. Perdue, Timothy T. Fister, Soojeong Kim, Christopher A. Apblett, David Prendergast. Revealing electronic structure changes in Chevrel phase cathodes upon Mg insertion using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics , 18 26 , Structural, morphological and electrochemical investigation of LiNi0. Ceramics International , 41 9 , Nano Energy , 17 , Understanding self-discharge mechanism of layered nickel cobalt manganese oxide at high potential. Observation of anisotropic microstructural changes during cycling in LiNi 0.

Episode 20 Creating Material Variation

Hausbrand, G. Cherkashinin, H. Ehrenberg, M. Albe, C. Hess, W. Fundamental degradation mechanisms of layered oxide Li-ion battery cathode materials: Methodology, insights and novel approaches. Materials Science and Engineering: B , , Separation and recovery of metal values from leach liquor of waste lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide based cathodes. Separation and Purification Technology , , Journal of Materials Chemistry A , 3 16 , Patrick Rozier, Jean Marie Tarascon.

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Seidler, D. Mortensen, A. Remesnik, J. Pacold, N.

Ball, N. Barry, M. Styczinski, O. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements. Review of Scientific Instruments , 85 11 , Temperature dependent ageing mechanisms in Lithium-ion batteries — A Post-Mortem study. One-step synthesis and effect of heat-treatment on the structure and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.

Advanced Energy Materials , 4 5 , RSC Advances , 4 70 , Maugeri, A. Iadecola, L. Simonelli, G. Chen, H. Wadati, T. Mizokawa, N. Christopher J. Patridge, Corey T. Love, Karen E. Swider-Lyons, Mark E. Twigg, David E. In-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis of capacity fade in nanoscale-LiCoO2.

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